CONCAT: The CONCAT function concatenates or puts together two or more character strings into one string. LENGTH: The LENGTH function gives you the length of a character string. LOWER: The LOWER function transforms uppercase letters into lowercase, as shown in the following example: SQL> SELECT LOWER('SHANNON ALAPATI') from dual; LOWER('SHANNONALAPATI') ----------------------shannon alapati SQL> SUBSTR: The SUBSTR function returns part of a string. INSTR: The INSTR function returns a number indicating where in a string a certain string value starts. LPAD: The LPAD function returns a string after padding it for a specified length on the left. RPAD: The RPAD function pads a string on the right side. TRIM: The TRIM function trims a character string. REPLACE: The REPLACE function replaces every occurrence of a specified string with a specified replacement string.

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You can use aggregate functions to compute things such as averages and totals of a selected column in a query. Here are the important aggregate functions: MIN: The MIN function returns the smallest value. Here s an example: SELECT MIN(join_date) FROM employees; MAX: The MAX function returns the largest value. AVG: The AVG function computes the average value of a column. SUM: The SUM function computes the sum of a column: SQL> SELECT SUM(bytes) FROM dba_free_space; COUNT: The COUNT function returns the total number of columns. COUNT(*): The COUNT(*) function returns the number of rows in a table.

Oracle includes several number functions, which accept numeric input and return numeric values. The date functions help you format dates and times in different ways. Here are some of the important number and date functions: ROUND: This function returns a number rounded to the specified number of places to the right of the decimal point. TRUNC: This function returns the result of a date truncated in the specified format.

SYSDATE: This commonly used function returns the current date and time: SQL> SELECT sysdate FROM dual; SYSDATE -------------------07/AUG/2005 10:00:00 SQL> TO_TIMESTAMP: This function converts a CHAR or VARCHAR(2) data type to a timestamp data type. TO_DATE: You can use this function to change the current date format. The standard date format in Oracle is DD-MON-YYYY, as shown in the following example: 07-AUG-2005 The TO_DATE function accepts a character string that contains valid data and converts it into the default Oracle date format. It can also change the date format, as shown here: SQL> SELECT TO_DATE('August 20,2005', 'MonthDD,YYYY') FROM dual; TO_DATE('AUGUST20,2005' ----------------------20/AUG/2005 12:00:00 AM SQL> TO_CHAR: This function converts a date into a character string, as shown in the following example: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE FROM dual; SYSDATE ----------04-AUG-2005 SQL> SQL> SELECT TO_CHAR(SYSDATE, 'DAY, DDTH MONTH YYYY') FROM DUAL; TO_CHAR(SYSDATE,'DAY,DDTHMON -------------------------------THURSDAY , 04TH AUGUST 2005 SQL> TO_NUMBER: This function converts a character string to a number format: SQL> UPDATE employees SET salary = salary + TO_NUMBER('100.00', '9G999D99') WHERE last_name = 'Alapati';

This script isn t intended to be called specifically as an add-on utility; it is intended as a replacement for the original editor for your environment I wrote it for use with vi, although other editors could be replaced in the same manner You would first rename the original vi or vim binary in /usr/bin to something like /usr/bin/vim-rcs When you move this script to its new location, you would replace the original /usr/bin/vi (or vim) with your script so that when you call vi/vim, you will be running this script instead The $VI variable refers to the new location of the original vi/vim binary so the script knows where you moved it This works even when calling vi (now the script) with a wild card such as *, because the shell will expand the wild card before executing the call We start out with some configurable system variables.

Oracle provides some very powerful general and conditional functions that enable you to extend the power of simple SQL statements into something similar to a traditional programming language construct. The conditional functions help you decide among several choices. Here are the important general and conditional Oracle functions:

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